From letters and documents unearthed in the Judean Desert we know the real name of the leader to have been Simeon bar Kosiba. Many Jews assimilated and many sages and prominent men were martyred including Rabbi Akiva and the rest of the Asara Harugei Malchut (ten martyrs). From letters and documents unearthed in the Judean Desert we know the real name of the leader to have been Simeon bar Kosiba. The tannaim were divided, some supporting his rebellion, others not. Under the strong leadership of Shimon Bar-Kokhba, the Jews captured approximately 50 strongholds in Judea and 985 undefended towns and villages, including Jerusalem. Silver Sela, mint of Jerusalem, undated year 3 (134/5 CE). There are few sources about Bar-Kokhba. reinterpreted by Zionists from a more religious observance to a secular celebration of Jewish resilience Obverse: the Jewish Temple facade with the rising star, surrounded by "Shimon". The Zionist youth movement Betar took its name from Bar-Kokhba's traditional last stronghold, and David Ben-Gurion, Israel's first prime minister, took his Hebrew last name from one of Bar-Kokhba's generals. Documents discovered in the modern era Rabbi Akiva. Bar Kokhba Revolt - "/his/ - History & Humanities" is 4chan's board for discussing and debating history. His state was conquered by the Romans in 135 following a two-year war. Simeon Bar Kochba is surrounded by legend, and little is known of his life. The sobriquet Bar Kokhba, “Son of a Star,” was given to him in accord with Num. The Bar Kokhba Revolt broke out in 132 C.E., 62 years after the subjection of Judea and Jerusalem and the destruction of the temple by Titus, and continued for three and half years. The Roman general Lucius Quietus, ferocious in putting down the Mesopotamian revolt, was rewarded with the governorship of Palestine. Download our mobile app for on-the-go access to the Jewish Virtual Library, Holy Temple, Shimon Bar-Kokhba, Rabbi Akiva, © 1998 - 2021 American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. By that time, there were 12 army legions from Egypt, Britain, Syria and other areas in Judea. Simon Bar Kosiba led the uprising, which began in full force in 132 CE. When the Roman author Cornelius Fronto wrote a letter to the emperor Marcus Aurelius on the occasion of the destruction of a legion by the Parthians (in 162 AD), he compared it to the Bar Kochba revolt, implicitly admitting that the latter had been a defeat. Bar Kochba died in the defense of besieged Bethar. As prayer had replaced sacrifice, Torah, in the form of the Mishnah, had now replaced messianism. The revolt did not begin until it had found its leader. Judea was made part of the province of Syria. Judaea, Second Revolt (Bar Kokhba War), 132-136 CE. The war began as a guerrilla struggle against Rome in 132 C.E. 24:17(“A star shall go forth from Jacob”), taken to refer to the messiah. Shimon Bar-Kokhba was the leader of the Jewish revolt against Rome between 132 and 135 C.E. Indeed, the execution of these rabbis, together with the biblical story of the binding of Isaac, would serve as a paradigm for Jewish martyrdom (termed kiddush hashem, “sanctification of God’s name”) in the medieval and modern periods. With the fall of Jerusalem and then Bethar, a fortress on the seacoast south of Caesarea where Bar Kokhba was slain, the rebellion was crushed in 135. It is also probable that Hadrian prohibited circumcision even before the Bar Kochba Revolt, although some see the outlawing of circumcision as a measure enacted after the upris­ing had begun, much like the persecutions of Antiochus IV. Simon Bar Kosiba led the uprising, which began in full force in 132 CE. He also began deporting Jews to North Africa. Keter Publishing House Ltd., Jerusalem, 1973. It was not until the reign of the Roman emperor Trajan (98-­117 C.E.) We use cookies to improve your experience on our site and bring you ads that might interest you. Simon ben Kosevah, or Cosibah, known to posterity as Bar Kokhba (Hebrew: שמעון בן כוסבה ‎; died 135 CE), was a Jewish military leader who led the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE. His state was conquered by the Romans in 135 following a two-year war. Jews were hiding in caves in order to be able to perform the mitzvahs. The Jews of Cyrene (in North Africa) were said to have massacred their neighbors. Bar Kokhba This revolt began as small, spontaneous clashes between Jews and Roman forces. In 135 C.E., Hadrian’s army besieged Bethar and on the 9th of Av, the Jewish fast day commemorating the destruction of the first and second Holy Temples, the walls of Bethar fell. all credit goes to dovahhaty https://m.youtube.com/channel/UCdZY83VtDv0WieDHLyXrlNQ The historical memory of the Bar Kochba Revolt has been much weaker than that of the Jewish revolt of 70 CE, perhaps because of the spectacular tragedy of the Temple’s destruction, perhaps because no detailed history of it still survives today. The Jews were handed expectations of a homeland and a Holy Temple, but in the end were persecuted and sold into slavery. From letters and documents unearthed in the Judean Desert we know the real name of the leader to have been Simeon bar Kosiba. This age of persecution lasted throughout the remainder of Hadrian’s reign, until 138 C.E. Thousands of Jewish refugees fled to Bethar during the war. The Bar Kokhba revolt (132–136 CE), [2] Hebrew: מרד בר כוכבא ‎ or mered bar kokhba, was the third major rebellion by the Jews of Judaea Province against the Roman Empire and the last of the Jewish-Roman Wars. Bar Kokhba Revolt: The revolt of 132-135 A. D. began with promise, after years Rome finally exacted a blood vengeance by General Severus. Ben Sasson, Editor. Judean settlements were not rebuilt. As if history were repeating itself, recovery and reinstatement of Jewish self-government ensued once again. As long as Hadrian remained near Judea, the Jews stayed relatively quiet. An attack against such fundamental commandments of Judaism was bound to trigger a revolt-which it did. Due to the large number of Jewish rebels, instead of waging open war, Severus besieged Jewish fortresses and held back food until the Jews grew weak. We know from the documents that the country was organized into administrative districts, that taxes were collected, and that governmental operations were carried out by Bar Kochba’s supporters. “Bar Kokba and Bar Kokba War.” Funk and Wagnalls Co. London, 1902. ), Proceedings of the Judaean Documents Workshop held in Bar Ilan University, 3–5 June 1998 (forthcoming). Early in the time of Hadrian there was an abortive attempt to rebuild the Jerusalem Temple, believed by some scholars to have had Hadrian’s support. He appointed Tinneius Rufus governor of Judea. Supposedly of the line of David, some hailed him as the Messiah, inferred from his name change, Kosba to Kokhba (“Son of the Star” from Numbers 24:17). Those that exist in Talmud, Midrash and Church Father Euseblus are largely legendary. In particular, the need to pay a capitation tax to the Temple of Jupiter in Rome must have made the Jews very unhappy. A rebellious Jewish population would coalescence around a man who would be proclaimed a messiah. Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem. The debacle of the first revolt against Rome was followed by a period of relative calm. The Romans sought to extinguish Jewish presence in Jerusalem by renaming it Aelia Capitolina, and by changing Israel to Palestine. "the ten cities"), league or administrative grouping of Syrian-Greek cities situated in southern Syria, the northern Jordan Valley, an… What is especially significant in these disturbances is the evidence that they were fueled by the very same messianic yearnings that had helped to fan the flames of the Great Revolt, and would soon lead to the Bar Kochba Revolt. Bar Kokhba became the leader of this Second Jewish Revolt; although at first successful, his forces proved no match against the methodical and ruthless tactics of the Roman general Julius Severus. Rufus was a harsh ruler who took advantage of Jewish women. Only then did his attack escalate into outright war. The turning point of the war came when Hadrian sent into Judea one of his best generals from Britain, Julius Severus, along with former governor of Germania, Hadrianus Quintus Lollius Urbicus. It was in this period that tannaitic Judaism came to its final stages, and that the work of gathering its intellectual heritage, the Mishnah, into a redacted collection began. The Jewish Encyclopedia. Messianism was abstracted and spiritualized, and rabbinical political thought becam… The final battle of the war took place in Bethar, Bar-Kokhbas headquarters, which housed both the Sanhedrin (Jewish High Court) and the home of the Nasi (leader). Six days passed before the Romans allowed the Jews to bury their dead. Bar Kochba silver Shekel/tetradrachm. The sobriquet Bar Kokhba, “Son of a Star,” was given to him in accord with Num. This rebellion later became known as the Bar-Kokhba revolt. They built hideouts in caves and did shoddy work building weapons so that the Romans would reject the weapons and return them to the Jews. Once again a Jewish attempt to defeat the Romans and to bring the messianic era had failed. (ed. It begins with Hadrian, functional ruler of the Roman Empire in AD 130, and a survey of his world. He allowed them to return to Jerusalem and granted permission for the rebuilding of their Holy Temple. Imagine the incredible excitement of those involved in the discovery of the caves when they learned they had finally uncovered the final resting place of Bar-Kokhba and others who were with him. 24:17 (“A star shall go forth from Jacob”), taken to refer to the messiah. Following the battle of Bethar, there were a few small skirmishes in the Judean Desert Caves, but the war was essentially over and Judean independence was lost. A History of the Jewish People. According to the Christian church historian Eusebius (c.260-c.340), Simon claimed to be a luminary who had come down to the Jews from heaven (History of the church 4.6.2). In 132, a revolt led by Bar Kokhba quickly spread from Modi'in across the country, cutting off the Roman garrison in Jerusalem. Answer: The Bar Kokhba revolt was a series of battles from AD 132 to 135 waged against the Roman Empire by Jews led by Simeon bar Kosba, who made messianic claims and who was renamed Bar Kokhba (“Son of the Star”) by an influential rabbi. The Bar Kokhba revolt marked a time of high hopes followed by violent despair. 24:17 (“A star shall go forth from Jacob”), taken to refer to the messiah. Introduction. The first conflict, known as the Jewish War or the First Revolt, was fought from A.D. 66 to 70; the second conflict, known as the Bar Kokhba War, raged from A.D. 132 to 135. There are few sources about Bar-Kokhba. The final battle of the war took place in Bethar, Bar-Kokhba’s headquarters, which housed both the Sanhedrin (Jewish High Court) and the home of the Nasi (leader). After a fierce battle, every Jew in Bethar was killed. With the accession of the emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161 C.E. For many years, historians did not write very much about Simon Bar Kosiba. Answer: The Bar Kokhba revolt was a series of battles from AD 132 to 135 waged against the Roman Empire by Jews led by Simeon bar Kosba, who made messianic claims and who was renamed Bar Kokhba (“Son of the Star”) by an influential rabbi. Simeon Bar Kochba is surrounded by legend, and litt… Decapolis, DECAPOLIS (Gr. Eliav , Y. , “ Hadrian’s Actions in the Jerusalem Temple Mount according to Cassius Dio and Xiphilini Manus ,” Jewish Studies Quarterly 4 ( 1997 ). The Bar Kochba Revolt was a Jewish rebellion, led by Simon bar Kochba, against the Roman Empire that ultimately failed. The second-century sage was the inspiration for many legends and may have died as a martyr. Hadrian quickly went back on his word, however, and requested that the site of the Temple be moved from its original location. During the revolt itself, the Jews gained enormous amounts of land, only to be pushed back and crushed in the final battle of Bethar. Bethar was a vital military stronghold because of its strategic location on a mountain ridge overlooking both the Valley of Sorek and the important Jerusalem-Bet Guvrin Road. Similar disturbances fol­lowed in Cyprus and Mesopotamia. Jason Aronson Inc., New Jersey, 1989. The nature of the revolt, how it was suppressed cruelly by the Romans, and the death of Bar-Kokhba were described briefly in the writings of classical historians and in various wors by Church Fathers. Bar-Kokhba united his army in Judea and led the Jews in battle. The main conflicts took place in Judea, the Shephela, the mountains and the Judean desert, though fighting also spread to Northern Israel. It is possible that sacrifices were now reinstituted and that work was begun on rebuilding the sanctuary. On Lag Ba'Omer, Israeli children celebrate the Jewish rebels' victory over the Romans 2,000 years ago. The revolt was ultimately unsuccessful, and Jerusalem paid a heavy toll for the rebellion. 70AD) and a second revolt, known as the Bar Kokhba revolt, happened several decades later. My Jewish Learning is a not-for-profit and relies on your help. Fought circa 132-136 CE, it was the last of three major Jewish-Roman wars, so it is also known as The Third Jewish-Roman War or The Third Jewish Revolt. The Jews organized guerilla forces and, in 123 C.E., began launching surprise attacks against the Romans. Jews from other countries, and even some gentiles, volunteered to join their crusade. The rebellion was crushed by the Roman commander Julius Severus. Media in category "Bar Kokhba revolt" The following 13 files are in this category, out of 13 total. He first reconquered the Galilee to cut the Romans off from the sea. The Jewish leaders carefully planned the second revolt to avoid numerous mistakes that had plagued the first Great Jewish Revolt sixty years earlier. Obverse: 'Shimon' (in Palaeo-Hebrew) around the tetrastyle facade of the Temple of… Those who supported him saw him as a messianic figure. In approximately 132 C.E., Hadrian began to establish a city in Jerusalem called Aelia Capitolina, the name being a combination of his own name and that of the Roman god Jupiter Capitolinus. A different kind of redemption was now at hand. Both are found subleasing land from Bar Kokhba, probably part of the imperial estate in Ein Gedi, now taken over by the rebels; see Yadin, Y., ‘ Expedition D ’, IEJ II (1961), 40 – 50, and Cotton, H. M., ‘Ein Gedi between the two revolts’, in Katzoff, R. Capitolina on the ruins of Jerusalem and the Bar Kokhba revolt. Jerusalem was turned into a pagan city called Aelia Capitolina and the Jews were forbidden to live there. Bar-Kokhba united his army in Judea and led the Jews in battle. The Jews’ expectations rose as they made organizational and financial preparations to rebuild the temple. Writes Casius Dio, Little is known of the actual course of the revolt and of Rome’s successful attempt to regain control. In the course of the revolt, the rebels took 50 fortifications. Shimon Bar-Kokhba was the leader of the Jewish revolt against Rome between 132 and 135 C.E. Bar Kokhba was a Jewish and false messiah who led one of the greatest rebellions of his people against the Romans in an attempt to take back Judea at any cost. Yet as victories go, Simon Bar Kochba's was a Pyrrhic one. To Christians, the revolt was furt… This revolt was the culmination of political tensions between Jews and the Romans, owing to the large military presence in Judea, the failure of the first revolt, and possibly Emperor Hadrian’s establishment of a temple of Jupiter in the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. News coverage you can trust , “ The Bar Kokhba Revolt: The Roman Point of View,” Journal of Roman Studies 89 (1999). Those who supported him saw him as a messianic figure. Bar Kokhba, original name Simeon Bar Kosba, Kosba also spelled Koseba, Kosiba, or Kochba, also called Bar Koziba, (died 135 ce), Jewish leader who led a bitter but unsuccessful revolt (132–135 ce) against Roman dominion in Judaea. It was the type of war the Romans tried to forget. Kantor, Morris. Exile Part 38. Sources: Encyclopedia Judaica. [citation needed] The disastrous end of the revolt also occasioned major changes in Jewish religious thought. It followed a long period of tension and violence, marked by the first Jewish uprising of 66-70 CE, which ended with the destruction of the Second Temple, and the Kitos War (115-117 CE). The sobriquet Bar Kokhba, “Son of a Star,” was given to him in accord with Num. Here we see a reflection of the ancient concept of two messiahs, a lay and a priestly figure, prominent in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs and in certain Qumran scrolls. This minor holiday -- known for bonfires, weddings and haircuts -- begins the evening of May 11, 2020. The marriage of politics and religion contributed to both the expansion and destruction of this short-lived dynasty. The city of Bethar became the center of the movement. Jews were sold into slavery and many were transported to Egypt. From that point on, life only got worse for the Jews. He had active support of most of the rabbis … " we've had enough of long noses and money jokes. (Koby Harati/City of David/Israel Antiquities Authority) Rebel propaganda . When discovered by Roman soldiers, they resisted, in some cases successfully. The Jewish Time Line Encyclopedia. Yet as victories go, Simon Bar Kochba's was a Pyrrhic one. The Bar Kokhba Revolt is still commemorated by Jews around the world on the holiday of Lag Ba’Omer, which has been reinterpreted by Zionists from a more religious observance to a secular celebration of Jewish resilience. Bar Kokhba Revolt coinage were coins issued by the Judaean rebel state, headed by Simon Bar Kokhba, during the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire of 132-135 AD. The tannaim were divided, some supporting his rebellion, others not. The Romans demolished all 50 Jewish fortresses and 985 villages. Soon after, Hadrian founded a city of his own in Jerusalem called Aelia Capitolina, where he erected a temple to the Greek god Zeus. Bethar was a vital military stronghold because of its strategic location on a mountain ridge overlooking both the Valley of Sorek and the important Jerusalem-Bet Guvrin Road. To the Romans, the revolt was best forgotten but was sometimes cited as an example of a particularly bloody and brutal confrontation with an intractable enemy. The Bar Kokhba Revolt was a Jewish rebellion against the Roman Empire. They were permitted to enter only on the 9th of Av to mourn their losses in the revolt. How to say bar Kokhba revolt in English? Bar Kochba followed the same strategy that the Jews had followed in the first rebellion against Rome. He started to build a temple to Jupiter in place of the Jewish Holy Temple. Bar Kokhba Revolt coinage were coins issued by the Judaean rebel state, headed by Simon Bar Kokhba, during the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire of 132-135 CE. 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